Ordinarily it's impossible for an actual input of a function to have declared type ANYARRAY, since we'd resolve that to a concrete array type before doing argument type resolution for the function. But an exception arises for functions applied to certain columns of pg_statistic or pg_stats, since we abuse the "anyarray" pseudotype by using it to declare those columns. So parse_coerce.c has to deal with the case.
Previously we allowed an ANYARRAY actual input to match an ANYARRAY polymorphic argument, but only if no other argument or result was declared ANYELEMENT. When that logic was written, those were the only two polymorphic types, and I fear nobody thought carefully about how it ought to extend to the other ones that came along later. But actually it was wrong even then, because if a function has two ANYARRAY arguments, it should be able to expect that they have identical element types, and we'd not be able to ensure that.
The correct generalization is that we can match an ANYARRAY actual input to an ANYARRAY polymorphic argument only if no other argument or result is of any polymorphic type, so that no promises are being made about element type compatibility. check_generic_type_consistency can't test that condition, but it seems better anyway to accept such matches there and then throw an error if needed in enforce_generic_type_consistency. That way we can produce a specific error message rather than an unintuitive "function does not exist" complaint. (There's some risk perhaps of getting new ambiguous-function complaints, but I think that any set of functions for which that could happen would be ambiguous against ordinary array columns as well.) While we're at it, we can improve the message that's produced in cases that the code did already object to, as shown in the regression test changes.
Also, remove a similar test that got cargo-culted in for ANYRANGE; there are no catalog columns of type ANYRANGE, and I hope we never create any, so that's not needed. (It was incomplete anyway.)
While here, update some comments and rearrange the code a bit in preparation for upcoming additions of more polymorphic types.
In practical situations I believe this is just exchanging one error message for another, hopefully better, one. So it doesn't seem needful to back-patch, even though the mistake is ancient.
77ec5affbc Adjust handling of an ANYARRAY actual input for an ANYARRAY argument.
src/backend/parser/parse_coerce.c | 373 +++++++++++++++--------------
src/test/regress/expected/plpgsql.out | 2 +-
src/test/regress/expected/polymorphism.out | 2 +-
3 files changed, 191 insertions(+), 186 deletions(-)